History of Renaissance art
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The artistic renaissance began in Italy, in which Italian artists, unlike in other European countries, refused to adopt the Gothic style in architecture, and even used this concept as a mockery of this style, rebelling against the Gothic style. They moved to a new style. Modern historians divide the Italian Renaissance into three periods: early, transcendent, and late. Although Italy was the birthplace of the Renaissance, other European countries also played a role in the development and enrichment of its achievements. Renaissance thinkers emphasized the importance of every single human being, especially worthy human beings. And they despised the artistic, scientific, and literary achievements of the Middle Ages, and believed that they could advance their culture and art by reviving the culture and art of Greece and Rome. According to the Renaissance, man has God-given power and ability, and this ability is manifested in existence. The genius of great men in the form of divine grace gave meaning to the efforts of artists such as Jeto, Mazatcho, Donatello, Alberti, Brunelleschi, Da Vinci, and the objectivity of the all-encompassing human being of Michelangelo, Raphael, Dürer in various arts and sciences.
Characteristics of Renaissance art
Reviving the spirit of classical Greek and Roman art, naturalism, individualism, human anatomy, completing the rules of perspective, paying attention to worldly subjects, the prevalence of oil painting instead of tempra and painting glaze to visualize the warmth and freshness of the skin are the characteristics of period art. It is a renaissance.
Causes of the Renaissance
Development of international trade, expansion of urban society, formation of middle class, invention of printing and popularization of printed books, discovery of new lands, increasing social status of artists, art friendship of society aristocracy and support of artists, self-belief and belief in human ability and competence It is one of the reasons for the formation of the Renaissance movement.
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Renaissance architects were often thinkers and researchers, and some, such as Brunelsky, Da Vinci, and Raphael, specialized in several disciplines, including architecture, painting, and sculpture. They also considered the artistic heritage of the classical Greek and Roman eras to be transcendent and sought to revive it. The pioneer of Renaissance architecture was Filippo Brunelleschi of Florence. He began his career as a sculptor in Florence. He obtained the exact constructions of the Roman buildings and realized that these buildings are in harmony and proportion in part and in whole, and in the end, based on his studies, the same mathematical proportions that create harmony in music should be stated in a theory. He believed that the secret of architecture in setting the right proportions, that is, architectural proportions, should be simple and based on integers. Knowing the ancient architecture, he used elements of this architecture in his works. He made the magnificent architecture of Greece and Rome simple and understandable and adapted to the needs of the people of his time. The dome of the Church of Florence, the Hospital of the Innocents in Florence is one of his works.
The end of the progressive renaissance led to a stagnation and imitation of the works of great masters. Instead of studying nature, the next generation of artists followed Michelangelo’s later works, marking the end of Renaissance classicism and the beginning of the Mannerist movement in the late sixteenth century. In this short period, originality, initiative, and longevity gave way to exaggeration in the expression of emotions, increased mobility and intensification of colors, and the contrast of dark and bright lights, and the distortion of limbs and parts.